Obesity Hypoventilation Syndrome (OHS), a condition related to sleep apnea, was first called Pickwickian Syndrome. It's named after The Pickwick Papers because the novel features a character that has all the classic symptoms of the condition.
Dickens addressed a very serious subject in the comedic Pickwick Papers, that of the injustice of the justice system. Dickens had a firsthand look at the legal system when he worked as a law clerk. Sadly, he didn't like what he saw.